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Electric Motors for Hybrid and Pure Electric Vehicles 2015-2025: Land, Water, Air
Publication Date Feb 2015
Publisher IDTechEx
Product Type Report
Pages 156
Single User License help $ 4495.00
 

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The electric vehicle business will approach a massive $500 billion in 2025 with the traction motors being over $25 billion. Their design, location and integration is changing rapidly. Traction motors propelling land, water and air vehicles along can consist of one inboard motor or - an increasing trend - more than one near the wheels, in the wheels, in the transmission or ganged to get extra power. Integrating is increasing with an increasing number of motor manufacturers making motors with integral controls and sometimes integral gearing. Alternatively they may sell motors to the vehicle manufacturers or to those integrating them into transmission. These complex trends are explained with pie charts, tables, graphs and text and future winning suppliers are identified alongside market forecasts. There are sections on newly important versions such as in-wheel, quadcopter and outboard motor for boats.

Today, with the interest in new traction motor design there is a surge in R&D activities in this area, much of it directed at specific needs such as electric aircraft needing superlative reliability and power to weight ratio. Hybrid vehicles may have the electric motor near the conventional engine or its exhaust and this may mean they need to tolerate temperatures never encountered in pure electric vehicles. Motors for highly price-sensitive markets such as electric bikes, scooters, e-rickshaws and micro EVs (car-like vehicles not homologated as cars so made more primitively) should avoid the price hikes of neodymium and other rare earths in the magnets. In-wheel and near-wheel motors in any vehicle need to be very compact. Sometimes they must be disc-shaped to fit in.

However, fairly common requirements can be high energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness, high torque (3-4 times nominal value) for acceleration and hill climbing and peak power twice the rated value at high speeds. Wide operating torque range is a common and onerous requirement. Overall energy saving over the drive cycle is typically critical. Usually winding and magnet temperature must be kept below 120C and then there are issues of demagnetisation and mechanical strength.

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Scope of report
1.2. Overview of markets and needs
1.3. Many specific needs
1.4. Common requirements
1.5. Trends
1.5.1. General
1.5.2. Trend in motor types needed
1.5.3. Trend in motors offered: synchronous, asynchronous, brushed
1.6. Different requirements from pure electric vs hybrid EVs
1.7. Regenerative braking considerations
1.8. Reducing limitations: trend by type
1.9. In-wheel motor adoption criteria
1.9.1. In-wheel motors needed for envisioned sky taxis and personal VTOL aircraft
1.10. Value chain becomes more complex
1.11. Positioning of motor manufacturers
1.12. Location of motor manufacturers
1.13. Timelines of newly successful EVs
1.14. Traction motor forecasts of numbers
1.15. Global value market for vehicle traction motors
1.16. Rapid increase in number of motors per vehicle
1.17. Motor technology by type of vehicle
1.18. Switched reluctance motors a disruptive traction motor technology?
1.19. Three ways that traction motor makers race to escape rare earths
1.20. Motor market value in 2015 and 2025
1.21. Percentage of vehicle cost
1.22. Shape of motors
1.23. Industry consolidation
1.24. Effect of 2015 Oil Price Collapse on Electric Vehicles
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Definitions
2.2. Needs
2.2.1. Traction motors are different
2.2.2. Where different types of traction motor are popular
2.3. Vertical integration
2.4. Quadcopter drone motors and controls
3. DESIGN ISSUES
3.1. Challenges
3.2. Important aspects overall
3.3. Basic design of traction motor
3.4. Design choices beyond basic operation principle
3.5. Intermediate solutions
3.6. Tough challenges: no simple optimisation
3.7. Efficiency multiplier effect
3.8. Ways of using more than one motor
3.8.1. Double motors for efficiency
3.8.2. Coupling motors for extra power and series parallel hybrids
3.8.3. Two motors for four wheel drive
3.8.4. Tesla adds two motor model
3.9. In-wheel and near-wheel multiple motors
3.9.1. Two types of in-wheel motor
3.10. Trend to integration
3.11. Move to high voltage
3.12. Motor controls
3.12.1. Overview
3.12.2. Cost and integration issues
3.12.3. Wide band gap semiconductors
3.13. Award winning 2-in-1 motor for electric cars
4. ANALYSIS OF 159 TRACTION MOTOR MANUFACTURERS
4.1. Traction motor manufacturers compared
4.2. Lessons from eCarTec Munich
5. MOTOR CONTROLLERS / INVERTERS
5.1. Optimisation using new devices and integration
5.2. Concern in Europe
6. OTHER RECENT NEWS
6.1. Yamaha uses Zytek's new electric powertrain for city concept vehicle
APPENDIX 1: LESSONS FROM BATTERY/EV EVENT MICHIGAN

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